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ノルベルト・エリアス--現代の思想家(022)

文明化の過程研究で名を馳せたドイツ生まれの社会学者のエリアス。『文明化の過程(上)ヨーロッパ上流階層の風俗の変遷』と『文明化の過程(下)社会の変遷/文明化の理論のための見取図』だけでなく、『宮廷社会』も必読書だろう。なお心理学の分野でも貢献している。

 

ノルベルト・エリアスNorbert Elias, 1897年6月22日 - 1990年8月1日)は、イギリス国籍でユダヤ系ドイツ人社会学者哲学者詩人。主な業績に文明化の過程研究がある。

 

 

生涯

ドイツ帝国東部のブレスラウ(現在のポーランドヴロツワフ)にて、織物工業を営む一家に生まれた。アビトゥーア取得後にドイツ帝国軍で勤務したが、ストレスで体調を崩し、療養のためにブレスラウに帰郷した。その後、ブレスラウ大学(現ヴロツワフ大学)に進学し、心理学哲学医学を専攻し(ただし、医学に関しては予備試験に合格後、専攻を取り消した)、一時期ハイデルベルク大学にも在籍した。リヒャルト・ヘーニヒスヴァルト指導下で執筆した卒業論文が認められ、1924年にブレスラウ大学を卒業した。この頃、当時のシオニズムに感化され、若手のシオニストとも交流した。

翌年、アルフレート・ヴェーバーの研究を手伝う目的でハイデルベルク大学に再び移ったが、最終的には同研究プロジェクトを離脱することとなり、フランクフルト大学カール・マンハイムの研究助手となった。しかし、ナチスの台頭の影響でマンハイムの研究が打ち切られると、エリアスはパリを経て、ロンドンへ亡命した。ロンドン滞在中に、ロンドン・スクール・オブ・エコノミクスにてマンハイムと再会し再び彼の助手を務めたが、宥和政策の影響でマン島へ強制送還された。釈放後はケンブリッジに移り、この時に『ドイツ人論』の執筆に着手した。1952年、研究家仲間の仕事を手伝う一環として集団分析協会の旗揚げに参加し、心理学について研究し、エリアス自身もセラピストの資格を取得した。

1954年から1962年まで、イギリスのレスター大学で講師として社会学を教えた。このときの教え子にアンソニー・ギデンズがいる。1977年にフランクフルト・アム・マイン市が創設したテオドール・アドルノ賞の第1回受賞者に選ばれた。1978年から1984年まで、ドイツのボーフム大学ビーレフェルト大学で教鞭を執った。

1990年8月、アムステルダムの自宅で死去。93歳だった。

日本語訳著書

単著

共著

 

エリアス全集がでている。

The Collected Works of Norbert Elias in English

The new editions of Elias's works have been carefully revised, cross-referenced and annotated (with notes especially about many historical people and events to which Elias makes reference), with a view to making them far more accessible to the reader. Especially important are the three volumes of Elias's collected essays, many of which have not previously been published in English – or were published in such a scattered way or in obscure places that they were hitherto little known. (Other essays can also be found in Early Writings, Mozart and other volumes.)

The 18 volumes are as follows:

1 Early Writings, edited by Richard Kilminster (Dublin: UCD Press, 2006).

2 The Court Society, edited by Stephen Mennell (Dublin: UCD Press, 2006).

3 On the Process of Civilisation [note new title], edited by Stephen Mennell, Eric Dunning, Johan Goudsblom and Richard Kilminster (Dublin: UCD Press, 2012).

4 The Established and the Outsiders, edited by Cas Wouters (Dublin: UCD Press, 2008).

5 What is Sociology? edited by Artur Bogner, Katie Liston and Stephen Mennell (Dublin: UCD Press,2012).

6 The Loneliness of the Dying and Humana Conditio, edited by Alan and Brigitte Scott (Dublin: UCD Press, 2009).

7 Quest for Excitement: Sport and Leisure in the Civilising Process, by Norbert Elias and Eric Dunning, edited by Eric Dunning (Dublin: UCD Press, 2008).

8 Involvement and Detachment, edited by Stephen Quilley (Dublin: UCD Press, 2007).

9 An Essay on Time, edited by Steven Loyal and Stephen Mennell (Dublin: UCD Press, 2007).

10 The Society of Individuals, edited by Robert van Krieken (Dublin: UCD Press, 2010)

11 Studies on the Germans [note new title], edited by Stephen Mennell and Eric Dunning (Dublin: UCD Press, 2013).

12 Mozart, and Other Essays on Courtly Culture, edited by Eric Baker and Stephen Mennell (Dublin: UCD Press, 2010).

13 The Symbol Theory, edited by Richard Kilminster (Dublin: UCD Press, 2011).

14 Essays I: On the Sociology of Knowledge and the Sciences, edited by Richard Kilminster and StephenMennell (Dublin: UCD Press, 2009).

15 Essays II: On Civilising Processes, State Formation and National Identity, edited by Richard Kilminster and Stephen Mennell (Dublin: UCD Press, 2008).

16 Essays III: On Sociology and the Humanities, edited by Richard Kilminster and Stephen Mennell (Dublin: UCD Press, 2009).

Forthcoming volumes

17 Interviews and Autobiographical Reflections, edited by Edmund Jephcott, Richard Kilminster, Katie Liston and Stephen Mennell (Dublin: UCD Press, October 2013).

18 Supplements and Index to the Collected Works [includes major unpublished essays on Freud and on Lévy-Bruhl], edited by Stephen Mennell, Marc Joly and Katie Liston (Dublin: UCD Press, forthcoming Spring 2014).

Supplementary volume

The Genesis of the Naval Profession, edited by René Moelker and Stephen Mennell (Dublin: UCD Press, 2007).

 

Select bibliography of earlier editions

Books (in chronological order, by date of original publication):

  • 1939: Über den Prozeß der Zivilisation. Soziogenetische und psychogenetische Untersuchungen. Erster Band. Wandlungen des Verhaltens in den weltlichen Oberschichten des Abendlandes and Zweiter Band. Wandlungen der Gesellschaft. Entwurf einer Theorie der Zivilisation. Basel: Verlag Haus zum Falken. (Published in English as The Civilizing Process, Vol.I. The History of Manners, Oxford: Blackwell, 1969, and The Civilizing Process, Vol.II. State Formation and Civilization, Oxford: Blackwell, 1982).
  • 2000: The Civilizing Process. Sociogenetic and Psychogenetic Investigations. Revised edition of 1994. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
  • 1965 (with John L. Scotson): The Established and the Outsiders. A Sociological Enquiry into Community Problems, London: Frank Cass & Co. (Originally published in English.)
  • 1969: Die höfische Gesellschaft. Untersuchungen zur Soziologie des Königtums und der höfischen Aristokratie (based on the 1933 habilitation). Neuwied/Berlin: Luchterhand. (Published in English translation by Edmund Jephcott as The Court Society, Oxford: Blackwell, 1983).
  • 1970: Was ist Soziologie?. München: Juventa. (Published in English as What is Sociology?, London: Hutchinson, 1978).
  • 1982: Über die Einsamkeit der Sterbenden in unseren Tagen, Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. (Published in English as The Loneliness of the Dying, Oxford: Blackwell, 1985).
  • 1982 (edited with Herminio Martins and Richard Whitley): Scientific Establishments and Hierarchies. Sociology of the Sciences Yearbook 1982, Dordrecht: Reidel.
  • 1983: Engagement und Distanzierung. Arbeiten zur Wissenssoziologie I, edited by Michael Schröter, Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. (Published in English as Involvement and Detachment. Contributions to the Sociology of Knowledge, Oxford: Blackwell, 1987.)
  • 1984: Über die Zeit. Arbeiten zur Wissenssoziologie II, edited by Michael Schröter, Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. (Published in English as Time. An Essay, Oxford: Blackwell, 1991).
  • 1985: Humana conditio. Betrachtungen zur Entwicklung der Menschheit am 40. Jahrestag eines Kriegsendes (8. Mai 1985), Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. (Not available in English).
  • 1986 (with Eric Dunning): Quest for Excitement. Sport and Leisure in the Civilizing Process. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • 1987: Die Gesellschaft der Individuen, edited by Michael Schröter, Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. (Original 1939, published in English as The Society of Individuals, Oxford: Blackwell, 1991).
  • 1987: Los der Menschen. Gedichte, Nachdichtungen, Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. (Poetry, not available in English).
  • 1989: Studien über die Deutschen. Machtkämpfe und Habitusentwicklung im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert, edited by Michael Schröter, Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. (Published in English as The Germans. Power struggles and the development of habitus in the 19th and 20th centuries, Cambridge: Polity Press 1996.)
  • 1990: Über sich selbst, Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. (Published in English as Reflections on a life, Cambridge: Polity Press, 1994).
  • 1991: Mozart. Zur Soziologie eines Genies, edited by Michael Schröter, Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. (Published in English as Mozart. Portrait of a Genius, Cambridge: Polity Press, 1993).
  • 1991: The Symbol Theory. London: Sage. (Originally published in English.)
  • 1996: Die Ballade vom armen Jakob, Frankfurt am Main: Insel Verlag (Drama, not available in English).
  • 1998: Watteaus Pilgerfahrt zur Insel der Liebe, Weitra (Austria): Bibliothek der Provinz (Not available in English).
  • 1998: The Norbert Elias Reader: A Biographical Selection, edited by Johan Goudsblom and Stephen Mennell, Oxford: Blackwell.
  • 1999: Zeugen des Jahrhunderts. Norbert Elias im Gespräch mit Hans-Christian Huf, edited by Wolfgang Homering, Berlin: Ullstein. (Interview, not available in English).
  • 2002: Frühschriften. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. (Early writings, not available in English.)
  • 2004: Gedichte und Sprüche. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. (Translations of poems in English and French).

See also:

  • Stephen Mennell (1989) Norbert Elias: Civilization and the Human Self-Image. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
  • Jonathan Fletcher (1997) Violence and Civilization: An Introduction to the Work of Norbert Elias. Cambridge: Polity.
  • Robert van Krieken (1998) Norbert Elias. London: Routledge.
  • Nathalie Heinich (2002) La sociologie de Norbert Elias. Paris: La Découverte.
  • Steven Loyal and Steven Quilley (eds) (2004) The Sociology of Norbert Elias. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Eric Dunning and Jason Hughes (2013) Norbert Elias and Modern Sociology: Knowledge, Interdependence, Power, Process. London: Bloomsbury.
  • Dépelteau, F. and Landini, T.S. (Ed. by) (2013) Norbert Elias & Social Theory. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Landini, T.S. and Dépelteau, F. (Ed. by) (2014) Norbert Elias & Empirical Research. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Articles

  • "Studies in the genesis of the naval profession", British Journal of Sociology, 1(4) 1950: 291-309.
  • "Problems of involvement and detachment", British Journal of Sociology, 7(3) 1956: 226-52.
  • "Sociology of knowledge: new perspectives. Part One", Sociology, 5(2): (1971): 149-68.
  • "Sociology of knowledge: new perspectives. Part Two", Sociology, 5(3): (1971): 355-70.
  • "Theory of science and history of science: comments on a recent discussion", Economy & Society, 1(2): (1972): 117-33.
  • "The Civilizing Process revisited: interview with Stanislas Fontaine", Theory & Society, 5: (1978): 243-53.
  • "On transformations of aggressiveness", Theory & Society, 5(2): (1978): 229-42.
  • "Civilization and Violence: on the state monopoly of violence and its infringements". TELOS 54 (Winter 1982-83): 134-54. New York: Telos Press
  • "The retreat of sociologists into the present", Theory, Culture & Society, 4: (1987): 223-47.
  • "On human beings and their emotions: a process-sociological essay", Theory, Culture & Society, 4(2-3): (1987): 339-61.
  • "The changing balance of power between the sexes - a process-sociological study: the example of the Ancient Roman state", Theory, Culture & Society, 4(2-3): (1987): 287-316.
  • "The Symbol Theory: An Introduction, Part One", Theory, Culture & Society, 6(2): (1989): 169-217.
  • "Technization and civilization", Theory, Culture & Society, 12(3): (1995): 7-42.
  • "Towards a theory of social processes", British Journal of Sociology, 48(3): (1997): 355-83.
  • "Power and Civilisation", Journal of Power, 1(2): (2008): 135-42.